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“Opinion: statement of belief or feeling. In fact, several historians say for instance, that the “Roman Catholic Church is more Roman than it is Christian.” One of the most common misconceptions about philosophy is that philosophical views are just opinions and hence any view is just as good (or bad) as any other. In my own reason-based thought this idea that through silence ignorance grows louder is my own general understanding. An opinion is a belief. Let me offer a conjecture: the fact/opinion distinction is ambiguous, and in trying to explain it, people typically conflate it with other distinctions in the neighbourhood. When someone asks, “Is that a fact?” they can be understood as asking, “Is that really the case?” or “Is that ultimately true?” When someone says, “It is a fact that…” they are telling us, in other words, “It is the case that…” or “It is true that…” That is, facts are not the statements themselves; they are, rather, the state of affairs or the reality to which a true statement corresponds. between the two, however – the rule that tells us how to assign statements to one category or the other – they often get tongue-tied. Perhaps the last example suggests a better answer: the difference between facts and opinions is that factual statements are uncontroversial. Socrates and most intellectuals since his time, have been of the firm opinion that "higher" pursuits such as self-examination and philosophy make for a better life. Either we allow same-sex couples to marry or we don’t. Moreover, many of the standard “opinion” examples are not normative: consider “God exists” or “A Democrat will win the presidency in 2016”. There were a number of views of truth under discussion atthat time, the most significant for the contemporary literature beingthe correspondence, coherence, and pragmatist theories of truth. A fact is based on direct evidence, actual experience, or observation. Are philosophers stating truths or are they stating opinion? Thus, for example, truth can be defined as the body of real events, things, and facts (Glanzberg, 2016). In the past year or so, the topic of Fake News, absolute knowledge, with the analysis of the true meaning, and the implications raised, the book Plato’s Republic there are many examples of turning blindness into knowledge. Suppose, then, we narrow our inquiry to statements, so that when we ask, “What is the difference between facts and opinions?” what we’re really asking is “What is the difference between statements of fact and statements of opinion?”, This seems like it should be an easy question, but it actually tends to stump most people on the street. In other words, both facts and opinions can be either successful or unsuccessful in representing reality, and thus the fact/opinion distinction is not the same as the belief/reality distinction. The concept of truth as the basic philosophical notion has been interpreted differently. Aristotle thinks the work of epistemology and empirical observation allows him to analyze the answer to questions of what is truth, the purpose of why something exists and how we can identify truth. Plato encouraged looking past what is directly visible in order to find truths that exist independent of the, fair to say that opinion is based in the assumption of knowledge? Opinion is a personal belief or judgment that is not founded on proof or certainty. For among the beliefs that people have about the world, there are some that people tend to put in the “fact” column and some that they tend to put in the “opinion” column. He also believes that free speech is justified because humans can never know if the majority opinion is truly correct. (4a) The current US president is a Democrat. It also jumbles together occurrences (what we earlier called “states of affairs”), statements about occurrences, and the evidence for those statements. The descriptive/normative distinction is sometimes called the fact/value distinction, which might lead it to be confused with the fact/opinion distinction. Beliefs about reality are still beliefs, and some of them, despite our best efforts, turn out to be false. According to this approach, we can separate facts from opinions by using what Perry Weddle has called the “Whose?” test: It always makes sense to ask “Whose opinion is it?” but never “Whose fact is it?”. Generally, we strive to make our beliefs as accurate as possible in representing reality, but that doesn’t remove the gap (some would say “gulf”) between the two. Every man is a fool in some man's opinion . That’s my opinion, anyway. Solid opinions, while based on facts, are someone’s views on a subject and not facts themselves.”. Claims are made about things that are very large such as galaxies and the entire universe, as to its shape and size and duration that are beyond the ability of any human to have a direct experience of it. The human senses give an idea of the present reality. Astrobiologists study the former problem; philosophers, the latter.This philosophical problem of truth has been with us for a long time. Montaigne even states, “Truth must be, out several arguments for why it is always beneficial for people of the minority opinion to voice their opinions. they’ll say that the A statements are facts and the B statements are opinions. Either we lie to our parents about what happened to the car or we don’t. Plato also believes, This means that it is not something that we believe to be true, we know its true and we can prove that it is true and know why it is true. For example, whether or not God created the earth is an objective matter, albeit a controversial and difficult-to-prove one. Real truth is not what is in front of us, but of absolute concepts and unchanging truths. In Plato's The Republic he discuses the idea that there is first knowledge at the first degree. In particular, the statement that “God created the earth” will need to move over to the “fact” column, since whether God created the earth is an objective matter – it happened (or not) independently of whether we believe it happened. Examples of OPINIONS: The dog is cute The class is fun 3 4. That’s not necessarily a bad thing, since – as we have seen – our common thinking about facts and opinions appears rather confused. For example, if the sentence ‘Kangaroos live in Australia’ is true, then there are kangaroos living in Australia. For example: the statement that thousands were killed in Darfur is descriptive; the statement that such killing was wrong is normative. Descriptive statements describe or represent the world; normative statements evaluate it. A fact is a statement that is true and can be verified objectively, or proven. For more content, go … Major theories of truth include those based on correspondence, coherence, truth conditions, and deflationism. However, the actual value of living the heavily-examined life could be open to debate. Some of the best essays on truth feature controversial opinions. John Corvino argues that the claim "That's just your opinion" is pernicious and should be consigned to the flames. It’s a way of diminishing a claim, reducing it to a mere matter of taste which lies beyond dispute. Truth, in matters of religion, is simply the opinion that has survived. We explore the nature of truth, the different types of truth, and the different types of entities who report truth to better understand the nature of information. John Corvino is Chair of the Philosophy Department at Wayne State University, the author of What's Wrong With Homosexuality?, and the co-author (with Maggie Gallagher) or Debating Same-Sex Marriage. Sue can have the opinion that reading is boring, while Mike can have the opinion that reading is fun. Plato says “They say that they can pretty much put knowledge into sounds that lake it, like putting sight into blind eyes.” (Plato, trans C.D.C Reeve, Hackett,1999, p. 212) Plato is explaining that anyone can be knowledgeable with the right tools or instructor. A belief is false when it does not reflect states-of-affairs, 1. For example, an historian might say, What Copernicus said was objectively true in exasperation — if some rival historian had been defending some depth-psychological or economic explanation of the fact that Copernicus said In recognising that a personal belief differs sharply from that of other individuals and cultures, one may conclude, “I guess that’s just my opinion – no better than anyone else’s.” This conclusion may stem from an admirable humility. So while the subjective/objective distinction might be useful in explaining the fact/opinion distinction, adopting this approach would require us to revise our common thinking about facts and opinions. Ann can have the opinion that Italian food tastes best, while Joe has the opinion that French food is ideal. The same is true for “God exists” – not an opinion, on this schema, but a factual claim (maybe true, maybe false). Perhaps more confusing is its labelling opinions as “statement(s) of belief.” As we’ve been using the terms, all statements express beliefs, and our task is to determine which of them express factual beliefs and which express opinions. Moreover, there is a strong commonsense intuition that genocide would be wrong whether anyone believes it’s wrong, suggesting that the claim is objective, not subjective. But there’s another, more pragmatic reason. Much of the contemporary literature on truth takes as its startingpoint some ideas which were prominent in the early part of the 20thcentury. The girl has beautiful hair.FACT OPINION 4 5. What is Truth? They are closely related and hence many dictionaries actually list them as synonyms. You can look up facts in an encyclopedia or other reference, or see them for yourself. The Form of Truth Knowledge is connected with both opinion and truth. How useful would the fact/opinion distinction be if any statement could count as either one, depending on who hears it? If everyday observers are confused about the distinction, “experts” fare little better. Truth takes in consideration feelings and beliefs, whereas they have no place in fact. Of course, there will inevitably be people whose "truth" does not square with objective facts. For example, it is an opinion that broccoli tastes good (or bad).”. I would like to know your opinions on the new systems. Some are about objective matters, such as whether there is beer in the refrigerator. I therefore propose that we abandon the ambiguous fact/opinion distinction, and especially the dismissive retort “That’s just your opinion.” We should focus instead on whether people can offer good reasons for the claims they make – reasons that might compel us to share their views. but then were there no facts before books? Some have tried to explain the distinction to me by arguing that facts are true. Plato goes on to, the ideas of opinion and knowledge. First, they capture some of the concerns that lead people to insist on the fact/opinion distinction in the first place – in particular, the concern that claims not be accepted without good evidence. Generally, the truth is an expression or a statement that conforms to the reality - you can include this statement in your conclusion. According to Arendt, the greatest antagonist of factual truth is an opinion, rather than a lie, particularly in light of the current predilection of blurring between fact and opinion. So for instance, given. At most there might be an added emphasis, but no change of topic. That’s true whether we’re talking about beliefs that usually show up in the “fact” column (“There’s beer in the refrigerator”) or in the “opinion” column (“God created the earth”). Truth, like knowledge, is surprisingly difficult to define. In my opinion , white chocolate is better than milk chocolate. “Facts are statements that can be shown to be true or can be proved, or something that really happened. Discussions of truthmakers and truthmaking typically start with the idea that truth depends on being, and not vice versa. As we age throughout life, we acquire our knowledge through people with a certain profession. The problem is: What does it mean to say that it is true that there is extraterrestrial life? FACT OR OPINION? Truthmaker Theory. "Lovers of sights and sounds like beautiful sounds, colors, shapes, and everything fashioned out of them, but their thought is unable to see and embrace the nature of the beautiful itself (Republic 476b)." In my opinion, truth and falseness in art is relative, meaning that a piece of art is not limited to a single truth. Such reticence conflicts with common sense: surely some opinions are more thoughtful, more informed, more coherent, and more important than others. Questioning many professions, journalism or any social media has taking the biggest blow of them all. On the other hand, it can have pernicious effects: it leads to a kind of wishy-washiness, wherein one refrains from standing up for one’s convictions for fear of imposing “mere opinions”. Can Psychologists Tell Us Anything About Morality? This answer is not at all helpful, since opinions are typically put forth as true, and some factual claims turn out to be false. I might believe that there’s beer in the refrigerator, whether or not there’s any there. supporters of the idea that opinion must be discussed in public debate. Facts and truth are two words that we come across very commonly. However, seeing is not believing. Very interesting & important question. Ditto if it didn’t happen. It is true that snow is white if and only if snow is white. Over the years, the doctrine of the Bible has been influenced by opinions of those trained in philosophy and Roman government. He argues that opinion is not pure knowledge and therefore can not be pure truth. In the last degree is falsehood. The same goes for expressions of belief: We can talk about statements of fact vs. statements of opinion, or factual claims vs. opinion claims, and so forth, and all of these are in the mouths of subjects. However, one may argue that what is true and false in art is not simply based on personal truth, but on some standards by which all art is measured by. And since we’ve been treating both facts and opinions as statements of belief, facts and opinions are similarly subjective: In other words, we can always ask “Whose belief?” or “Whose statement?”. Below we look at truth from a number of different perspectives, offering insight into “what we can know” and “how we can know it” as it pertains to Truth in its different forms. Truth, in philosophy, the property of sentences, assertions, beliefs, thoughts, or propositions that are said, in ordinary discourse, to agree with the facts or to state what is the case. Having teased apart these various distinctions, and looking back over the several attempts to explain the difference between fact and opinion, we might propose the following definitions: o A statement of fact is one that has objective content and is well-supported by the available evidence. The Education Oasis site announces that “An opinion expresses someone’s belief ... about something.” So if I believe that there’s beer in my refrigerator, is that just an opinion? To understand more completely, let's define each. Now it is neither necessary nor useful – indeed, it is positively misleading – to define ‘fact’ in terms of what is indisputablythe case – yet people … Moral debates are practical – they’re debates about what to do – and they concern our values: things that matter to us. Finally, consider the descriptive/normative distinction. However, truth is often considered to have a grander scope than fact. Can we truly know that what we critical thinkers think is true and does it have merit or is it only our reality that allows us to differentiate between opinion and what we call truth, knowledge and wisdom? We cannot provethis to be true or false. Are philosophers not putting forth their opinions about life and what they think the truth is? 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